Author: Ron Graham
He Led Captivity Captive
A study of Ephesians 4:7-10. This is a “hard passage”. The main question is whether or not Christ descended into hell. So, while it may be something of an aside, we will devote a lesson to it because the question is important.
Ephesians 4, Verses 7-10
¶“7But each one of us was given grace according to the measure of the gift of Christ. 8Therefore God says, ‘When he ascended on high, he led captivity captive, and gave gifts to men.’ 9But this, ‘He ascended’ —didn't he also first descend into the lower parts of the earth? 10He who descended is the one who also ascended far above all the heavens, that he might fill all things” (Ephesians 4:7-10 quoting Psalm 68:18).
We are going to consider three questions:
- What is the descent that Paul is thinking about when he says, "he also first descended into the lower parts of the earth" (verse 9)?
- What is the captivity that Paul is thinking about when he quotes, "He led captivity captive and gave gifts to men" (verse 8)?
- What is the leading that Paul has in mind in that same quote, "He led captivity captive" (verse 8)?
1 What is the Descent?
Paul regards the statement in the Psalm (Psalms 68:18) as a prediction of the ascension of Christ. Paul adds that this ascent to the highest heaven should be considered together with a prior descent into the lower parts of the earth.
This lines up with Paul’s teaching that Christ "was buried, and that he was raised on the third day according to the scriptures" (1Corinthians 15:4). Notice that Paul does not teach that Christ “descended into hell”. He says Christ "descended into the lower parts of the earth" (Ephesians 4:9). The descent that Paul has in mind is the fact that Christ died and was buried.
But people are not satisfied with that, and they say, “Yes but what about his soul or spirit? When his body was buried, didn't his soul go into hell?”
Did Jesus descend into hell?
To find out where Jesus’s soul went when his body was buried, we go to the Psalm which has Christ saying to his Father, "You will not leave my soul in Sheol, nor will you let your Holy One see corruption" (Psalm 16:10). So we see that Jesus was in a place called “Sheol”. In a moment we will see that this is not hell, the place of eternal punishment.
Peter quotes this Psalm in his preaching on the day of Pentecost: "You will not leave my soul in Hades, nor will you allow your Holy One to see corruption" (Acts 2:27). You will notice the word “Hades” in place of the word “Sheol”. This occurs because the quote in Acts is in Greek rather than the original Hebrew. “Hades” is the Greek equivalent of “Sheol”. Now if Christ were in Hell, the word would be “Gehenna” not “Hades”.
For example, Jesus says, "You snakes! You brood of vipers! How will you escape being condemned to Hell?" (Matt 23:33). The word for “Hell” here is “Gehenna” In a vision which John saw, "The sea gave up the dead that were in it, and death and Hades gave up the dead that were in them, and each person was judged according to what they had done." (Revelation 20:13). Here “Hades” is a place where all the dead awaited judgment. Hell, seen in the vision as a lake of fire, was where the wicked went after judgment.
If all the dead are in “Hades” then “Gehenna” has nobody in it yet —and won't have till after Judgment Day
Did Jesus descend into the bad side of hades?
Some people might say, “The hell that Jesus went into was not “Gehenna” but the bad side of “Hades” where the rich man who died was in torment: "In Hades he lifted up his eyes being in torments" (Luke 16:23).” But that would contradict Jesus who said to the thief on the cross, "Today you will be with me in Paradise" (Luke 23:43).
Did Jesus preach to the dead?
There is, nevertheless, a common belief that Christ “descended into hell” where he preached to the damned. Many in hell took this opportunity to be saved and Christ led them out of hell at his resurrection, and into heaven at his ascension. This host is sometimes identified as those resurrected in Matt 27:51-53.
The “proof” that Christ preached to people in hell, is thought to be Peter's statement that Christ "went and preached to the spirits in prison" (1Peter 3:19). However this is an anachronism, because the time of this preaching is clearly stated as "in the days of Noah". Peter is referring to Christ preaching through Noah to a sinful world (1Peter 3:19).
2 What is the Captivity?
The simplest explanation of "he led captivity captive" (Ephesians 4:8) is to think of captivity as slavery. Paul thinks of the new birth as an enslavement to Christ when he releases us from enslavement to sin (Romans 6:6,16-18). When Christ died, was buried, arose from the dead, and ascended to the right hand of God, he set a host of captives free from sin and took them captive to himself. He continues to do so even today and until he comes again, "that he might fill all things" (Ephesians 4:10).
Captivity in Redemption
The statement "he led captivity captive" (Ephesians 4:8) is a prophecy of redemption. "All have sinned, and fall short of the glory of God, being justified freely by his grace through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus" (Romans 3:23-24).
Jesus said, "For the Son of Man also came not to be served, but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many" (Mark 10:45). He paid the price to release people from captivity in sin, and to purchase them as his own slaves to righteousness. Thus "he led captivity captive".
So Christ "led captivity captive" (Ephesians 4:8) in that God "rescued us from the domain of darkness, and transferred us to the kingdom of his beloved Son, in whom we have redemption, the forgiveness of sins" (Colossians 1:12-14).
When we become the captive slaves of Jesus Christ, we find liberty in that captivity. This is a paradox, but not a contradiction, because Christ’s slaves are "sons of God... heirs of God and joint heirs with Christ" (Romans 8:14-17).
3 What is the Leading?
The statement "When he ascended on high he led captivity captive" (Ephesians 4:8) could mean that when Jesus ascended into heaven he led a host of captives in train who ascended into heaven with him.
Jesus Ascended Alone
However, it does not have to mean this, and there is no such event recorded in scripture. The record portrays Jesus as ascending into heaven alone (Acts 1:9-11).
Some point to Matthew 27:52-53 as providing the host who ascended with Jesus. "Many bodies of the saints who had fallen asleep were raised, and coming out of the tombs after his resurrection they entered the holy city and appeared to many". If they did ascend to heaven, the scripture does not record it. Paul for example did not mention it (1Corinthians 15:20-23). Again, Peter, some days after the ascension, preached that David was still in his grave and did not ascend to heaven (Acts 2:29,34).
Jesus Leads His Church
It may be better to consider the prophecy (Ephesians 4:7-10 quoting Psalm 68:18) as referring to something much plainer in scripture, something fundamental, namely Christ's leadership of his church "that he might fill all things" (Ephesians 4:10, Colossians 1:18-19). This interpretation certainly reflects the context in which Paul mentions the prophecy. Paul is discussing Christ's leadership of his body the church (Ephesians 4:1-16).
This leadership of Christ includes the work Christ has done through the agency of the Holy Spirit. When Jesus ascended into heaven, he was exalted to God's right hand. Peter says, "Having been exalted to the right hand of God, and having received from the Father the promise of the Holy Spirit, he has poured forth this which you both see and hear" (Acts 2:33).
Christ ruling in heaven as Head of his church, King of his kingdom, "gave gifts unto men" (Ephesians 4:8) through the power of the Holy Spirit, "and he gave some as apostles, and some as prophets, and some as evangelists, and some as shepherds and teachers" (Ephesians 4:11).
Christ led a host of captives (his church) through the agency of the Holy Spirit who gifted certain men with divine inspiration. Thus empowered, they could preach to all slaves of sin the true message of liberty, and lead them for Christ into light and liberty as captives of Christ.
It was Christ who exercised this leadership from his throne in heaven, and he continues to do so through providence and the inspired writings of those whom he gifted.
Christ the Firstfruits
I think we can take this a step further. Since we are viewing the words "he led" (Ephesians 4:8) as an act of Christ begun at his ascension, but continuing throughout the gospel age, then we should see those words as including even his final act of leadership on earth, shouldn't we? That final act is one that he will perform personally at his second coming to earth.
He will gather up the ransomed from the earth, both living and dead, and they will ascend with him into heaven to partake in all its gifts (John 14:3, 1Thessalonians 4:14-18). In his resurrection and ascension, Christ was the "firstfruits" (1Corinthians 15:20-23), and the "forerunner" (Hebrews 6:19-20), for an ingathering of all his ransomed and redeemed from the beginning to the end of creation.
Summing Up the Lesson (Ephesians 4:7-10)
- "...descended..." — Christ's descent into the lower parts of the earth was his burial. His soul went not into Gehenna the eternal abode of the wicked, but into Hades the place of the dead.
- "...captivity..." — Christ led captivity captive in that God, through the redemption in Christ, released sinners from the domain of darkness, Satan’s kingdom, and transferred them into Christ’s kingdom.
- "...led..." — Christ upon his ascension to glory, took the ownership and leadership of his slaves by the power and gifts of the Holy Spirit. He will reign as King and Shepherd-leader until he has put all enemies under his feet. He will then return to gather in his elect who will ascend to meet him and go with him into heaven.